• Wednesday, September 24, 2014

    computer basic for beginners

    Here you will get more knowledge of computer included with basic of computer, hardware, software, OS, word, excel and others also.

    Since it is the era of computer so it is must to know the basic of computer because computer is used in all activities like education, medical, defense etc.

    What is Computer:-
    Computer is an electronic machine which take input, process and give the desired output.  It solve our problems hundred more times than human and never tired. It is based on IPO cycle which is stands for Input Process and Output.

    Physical parts of the system are called hardware such as Keyboard, monitor, mouse, printer etc.

    Software is a set of programs which is logically and you can't touch. It helps the system devices to run the system smoothly. All applications and other programs are software.

    Example of Hardware parts of Computer:-

    System Unit, Keyboard, Mouse, Monitor, Printer etc.

    OS is the system software which provide an interface to connect to user with system. It is the main part of the system because without OS you can't use computer. 

    Types of OS:

    There are mainly three types of OS in the world which are listed below-

    i) Windows OS
    ii) Mac OS
    iii) UNIX OS

    How to Start computer:- 

    Follow the given steps to start the system:-

    i) Plug in the system
    ii) Press the Power button of the laptop or desktop (CPU)
    iii) You will get that the system will process and Windows logo will appear of the system screen

    How to open notepad:-

    i) Click on Start
    ii) All Programs
    iii) Accessories
    iv) Notepad

    How to know the configuration of the system:-

    i) Right click on My Computer icon
    ii) Click on properties

    Versions of Windows OS:-

    There are four most popular versions of Windows OS which are listed below-
    i) Windows XP
    ii) Windows Vista
    iii) Windows 7 and 
    iv) Windows 8

    Windows driver:-

    Windows driver is one of the most important file of the system which communicate with software, hardware and operating system. When user give the instructions to the system through software it is sent to the hardware devices with the help of Windows driver. It is as important that it stored in the System32 folder. The location is C:\Windows\System32\drivers so you can get the system drivers from this location. If it corrupt or deleted then you will receive many types of error codes, error messages, system stopped with BSOD error, boot error etc. 

    Most Required Software for Windows:-

    i) Microsoft Office
    ii) VLC media player
    iii) Adobe Photoshop
    iv) Adobe reader
    v) Browsers (Google Chrome, Firefox, Opera etc.)
    vi) Latest and updated Antivirus

    What is Antivirus:-
    Antivirus is a software or set or program developed to secure your system from malware, spyware, virus and other malicious programs.

    Why update antivirus?

    It is must to update antivirus because if any new virus found then developer include the protection power to the antivirus so that it can protect from new virus and malware.

    Malicious programs:

    All harmful programs of the system developed by hackers or cyber criminals are called malicious programs. They are also the set of programs but their purpose to steal the data of the user, earn money, disturb system user etc.

    Microsoft Office:

    Microsoft Office is an application developed by Microsoft for Windows users which helps to use the computer and mostly required in dca, basic of computer etc. It has also some other applications such as word, excel, power point, access, publisher etc. you can get help of this application to create document(word), presentation(power point), save records in a separate form(excel), store data in a database (access) etc. If you are a computer student and a beginner of the computer then you must know this application.

    What is Recycle Bin:

    Recycle Bin is a folder of Windows system which store the deleted file of the system for future use. If you deleted any file of the system by mistake then you can recover it from Recycle  Bin. Go to this folder by double clicking and select the file you have to recover, right click on that file and select restore. Now go to the location from where you have deleted, the file exist there.

    How to Uninstall a program of software from the system:-

    i) Click on Start
    ii) Control Panel
    iii) Add Remove Programs or Uninstall Programs
    iv) You will get the list of installed programs
    v) Select the program you have to uninstall
    vi) Right click and select the option uninstall

    How to speed up system:-

    i) Scan the system with a latest and updated antivirus then be sure that system is protected
    ii) Click on Start, Run, type temp and press enter. You will get some files so select all and delete them

    iii) Click on Start, Run, type %temp% and press enter.You will again get some files so select all and delete them

    iv) Click on Start, Run, type prefetch and press enter then also delete the listed files

    Windows defender:-

    Windows defender is the free antivirus software of Windows system which is located in Control Panel Items so follow the given steps to use it-

    i)  Click on Start, Control Panel
    ii) Expend Control Panel to view the all items of the Control Panel
    iii) Here you will get "Windows Defender" so right click and select create shortcut as shown in the below picture.

    How to view system drivers?

    If you want to view system drivers then you have to follow the given steps-

    i) Double click on My Computer
    ii) Open C drive
    iii) Open Windows
    iv) Open System 32
    v) Here you will get the folder named drivers so double click to open it. 


    How to change the Date and Time of the system?

    Follow the steps to change the Date and Time of the system-

    i) Click on Start, Control Panel
    ii) All Control Panel Items
    iii) Date and Time
    iv) Change Date and  Time

    v) Select the Date and Time as you want to set

    How to use desktop gadgets?

    If you want to use desktop gadgets on your system screen then you have to follow the given steps-

    i) Click on Start, Control Panel
    ii) All Control Panel Items
    iii) open desktop Gadget
    iv) From the shown screen select the Gadget you want to set

    How to select default programs?

    i) Click on Start, Control Panel
    ii) Expend All Items of Control Panel
    iii) Click on Default Programs

    iv) Click on "Set your default program"

    v)   Select the program from the left listed 

    How to use Desktop gadgets?

    i)   Click on Start, Control Panel
    ii)  All Control Panel Items
    iii)  Desktop Gadgets

    iv)  Double click on the gadgets you want to use

    How to change the setting of Start menu and task bar?

    i) Click on Start, Control Panel
    ii) All Control Panel Items
    iii) Click on "Taskbar and Start Menu" option
    iv) From the task bar tab, go to the text "task bar location on screen" and select from the drop down list. 

    For Start Menu setting go to the Start Menu tab and select as you want to change

    Instructions for computer user:-

    i) Never use free software because it may fake, duplicate.
    ii) Always use latest and updated antivirus and scan the system
    iii) Turn on firewall while surfing on internet
    iv) Don't visit malicious websites
    v) Never download software from malicious sites
    vi) Scan external devices before using in your system

    How to add a new device:-

    i) Click on Start, Control Panel
    ii) All Control Panel Items
    iii) devices and printers
    iv) Click on Add a device
    v) You will get a dialog boxlike given

    Client-Server activities:-

    If you use computer and surfing internet then you must know the activities and internal function of client-server because it will help you understand browser, web, protocol, TCP/IP, http etc. When user send instructions then it is accepted by server as a request then it checked by gateway then as a response returned to client. The responded data is in the form of html because browser understand it easily and html is the mother of web language. 


    hyper text transfer protocol


    hyper text markup language


    file transfer protocol

    URL:-  Uniform resource Locator (Known as web address)

    Method to send data on server:-

    GET  and POST


    Logical representation of data

    Web page:-

    Web page is a document written in html format and used to develop a website. Without web page you can't create any website because website is the collection of web pages.


    Transmission Control Panel

    It is a protocol which is used to send data in secured format. It has four layers Application layer, transport layer, Internet layer and Network Access layer.


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